Phosphatidic acid (PA) is an important constituent of cell membranes. It plays several roles in the functioning of cells; being utilized as a precursor in the biosynthesis of other lipids, facilitating vesicle fission/fusion via its biophysical properties and acting as a signaling lipid. The monoacyl derivative, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acts as a potent signaling molecule through the activation of high-affinity G-protein coupled receptors (LPA1, LPA2 and LPA3, formerly, EDG2, EDG4 and EDG7; and recently identified LPA4, LPA5 and LPA6). LPA signaling stimulates cell proliferation, and therefore has been linked to cancer through aberrations in the LPA regulation pathway. Cyclic lysophosphatidic acid (cPA or cLPA), in contrast to LPA, exhibits antiproliferative activity and inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
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